Main Pillars of Islam
Shahadah (Testimony of Faith):
The first pillar of Islam is to believe and declare the faith by saying the Shahadah (lit. ‘witness’), known as the Kalimah.
Salah (Daily Ritual Prayers):
Prayer (Salah), in the sense of worship, is the second pillar of Islam. Prayer is obligatory and must be performed five times a day. These five times are dawn (Fajr), immediately after noon (Dhuhr), mid-afternoon (‘Asr), sunset (Maghrib), and early night (Isha’).
Sawm (Fasting the Month of Ramadhan):
The fourth pillar of Islam is fasting. Allah prescribes daily fasting for all able, adult Muslims during the whole of the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the lunar calendar, beginning with the sighting of the new moon.
Zakah (Alms Tax for Poor):
The third pillar of Islam is the alms-tax (Zakah). The word in Arabic implies “purification” and it is understood to mean that a person “purifies” his holdings of wealth from greed and stinginess.
Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca):
The fifth pillar of Islam is to make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah, in Saudi Arabia, at least once in one’s lifetime. This pillar is obligatory for every Muslim, male or female, provided that he/she is physically and financially able to do so.